ONLINE VOTING / DECISION-MAKING

White Paper 

domino.vote makes online voting secure, inclusive, confidential, convenient and transparent.

1

An introduction to domino.vote

domino.vote is powered by blockchain. It uses multiphase cryptographic protocols to facilitate democratic decisions for any type of organization. 

domino.vote is a blockchain-based solution offering comprehensive poll supervision capabilities to voters directly from their mobile app and the first enabling voting rights to any standard token holder without requiring additional development.

2

Problem statement

Votes of any type traditionally require the voter’s presence. The organizer must manage the lengthy convocation process, provide a secure and controlled environment, prevent fraud and count the votes. The voter faces time and transport constraints representing significant economic costs often not entered into the accounts. 

With the introduction of e-voting have come various anti-fraud measures such as electronic signature, facial recognition, SIM-based systems, and end-to-end encryption, but depending on the process integration level many systems are still vulnerable to attack.

E-voting introduces a conflict between ID verification and the need to resort to data anonymization preserving confidentiality. There is a further issue around transparency if voters cannot understand the mechanics behind the collection and analysis of votes, particularly when there is no trust. In a nutshell, SECURITY, ANONYMITY, VERIFIABILITY, AUTHENTICATION AND TRANSPARENCY are the keys to successful e-voting.

Historically, organizing a poll required logistics and infrastructure costs, the mobilization of legitimate voters during the relevant time period and time-consuming ID verification. This has tended to decrease both voter turnout and the number of polls.    

Additionally, many professional decision-making polls require physical presence in a round table setting, limiting anonymity and freedom of expression while incurring logistics costs. With globalization, it is increasingly difficult to have all legitimate members in the same room for important decisions.  

Despite the fabulous developments of the last 30 years in digitalization, personal computing and mobile communications, the security level involved in online banking transactions has so far never been affordable to multi-purpose online voting applications.

3

The Opportunity

Voting is not only a civic duty but also the responsibility of the active professional, investor or entrepreneur. domino.vote eliminates intermediaries and allows everyone to personally verify poll results. This restores the full meaning of democratic consultation while ensuring legitimacy and confidentiality.

Blockchain has not yet attained mainstream adoption. The few existing e-voting systems based on blockchain struggle to ensure sufficient security, and restrict verification and auditing to administrators or experts. 

We go further, with an intuitive, user-friendly platform that makes this disruptive technology accessible and understandable to all.  We provide the first genuine and generic disintermediation solution for online voting, with the voters empowered to supervise the vote. domino.vote implements distributed governance, ensuring no single entity controls the ballot box nor the counting. With its choice of  4 ways to digitally identify, onboard and validate voters, domino.vote supports most use-cases for cost-effective online voting.

With new technologies challenging business and organization models in all industries, digital transformation is a hot topic. Studies highlight the correlation of trust with positive economic activity through gross domestic product, and digital trust is a key driver for digital transformation. With increasing cyber threats, only safe and secure tools can be successful, and trust is more vital than ever in both  business and politics. To embrace digital transformation, we need a culture of high trust behaviors such as open communication, safe risk-taking and a perception of fairness. domino.vote is the perfect enabler of such a culture. Our mission is to make online voting accessible to everyone from anywhere, and to make the entire process inclusive, transparent and democratic through shared governance.

Beyond the many improvements domino.vote brings to traditional voting, we also see an important leadership opportunity in a nascent domain. Asset tokenization, and indeed tokenization in general, is a growth area with huge benefits. domino.vote streamlines token governance in this growing market by providing the first generic voting solution compatible with any issued standard token.

4

Product description – How it works?

domino.vote is a distributed system seamlessly interacting with a mobile app to provide advanced online voting. It uses cryptography and blockchain technologies, with AI integration coming soon.

Using domino.vote requires neither technical infrastructure nor legacy integration. Poll organizers use a  secure web interface. Voters download a free native mobile app from the usual  Android and Apple app stores. Voters can become poll organizers and vice versa. The poll organizer pays, based on the number of voters, and the voters pay nothing.

domino.vote multiphase cryptographic protocols ensure voter legitimacy and protect both privacy and confidentiality. The voting wallet for each voter is the personal mobile app locally protected with biometric authentication such as fingerprint, and/or two-factor authentication (2FA).

To ensure voters are legitimate, organizers will select one of the four remote on-boarding methods available in domino.vote:

  1. A digital signature using an official digital ID e.g the Estonian digital ID card or the Swiss ID
  2. A KYC validation service provided by a third party connected through domino.vote
  3. A peer-to-peer validation system allowing rapid onboarding, where community members challenge and endorse one another with easy-to-use cryptographic tools provided by domino.vote
  4. A token ownership authentication method fully devised by domino.vote

3. and 4. are available from the first domino.vote version while 1. and 2. will come subsequently based on market demand. The 4. method is what makes domino.vote so unique in the nascent market of digital asset tokens. With domino.vote, a digital asset token issued by any third party does not need to include costly and rigid voting smart contract development. Furthermore, domino.vote delivers unrivaled User Experience (UX) features, being a dedicated online voting specialist, unlike most asset token issuers.
domino.vote is the first to market with a generic solution that does away with voting smart contracts. 

Voters receive in their mobile app the relevant ballot form. All ballot descriptions and annexes are digitally notarized on the blockchain. Note that domino.vote is compatible with most blockchain networks. Casting a vote through domino.vote is easy and intuitive, with higher security than current mobile banking apps.

Voters receive a receipt in their mobile app after voting. domino.vote has patented an immutable and transparent ballot box that voters inspect from their mobile app. As a genuine disintermediation system, domino.vote delivers unique and innovative voter capabilities:

  • Following their vote, voters can browse all vote receipts stored in the ballot box. The vote details in each receipt are encrypted and readable only by the receipt owner, not by other voters,  administrators nor the poll organizer. 
  • Voters can check the profiles of all legitimate voters, the vote’s blockchain timestamp and other non-confidential information. This empowers the voters themselves as poll supervisors.

The poll sequences are fully programmatic, decided in advance and anchored in the blockchain. When results are available, voters can access the summary and detail from their mobile app. The design of domino.vote gives voters the following proofs:

  1. For each voter, the individual verifiability proof that the voter’s casted vote was found within the counted votes. 
  2. The universal verifiability proof that the vote has not been corrupted, notably with regard to the following fraud risks: 
  • no legitimate initial votes were modified
  • no votes were missed from the count 
  • no ghost voters were inserted

This audit can be downloaded in a standard format to allow experts and non-experts alike to authenticate the poll results. The design of this cryptographic evidence is also a domino.vote patent pending.

domino.vote includes additional features beyond the core voting process. For example, Challenge tools to authenticate a voter’s profile, peer to peer digital notarization and more.

5

The Venture

domino.vote is a private limited company. We have spent 2 years perfecting the underlying peer-to-peer technology used in domino.vote. We founded the first entity in early 2019 in Estonia, and are currently incorporating in Switzerland. 

Delivering efficient and trusted decision-making solutions to enterprises, organizations and public institutions, we aim to be a global leader in online voting services.

Team

Founded by entrepreneurs passionate about innovation and purpose-driven ventures. The founding team counts 2 brothers based in Switzerland and Singapore and deeply involved in the digital revolution since the 90’s and active supporters of the digital nation concept everywhere it echoes in the world.

Founder & CEO | Ray Chow-Toun

Ray managed large-scale international IT projects in the banking, aviation and computer manufacturing industries for two decades. In 1999, he developed the first ASP (Application Services Provider) for SMEs in Switzerland. In 2004, he patented in the EU, USA and China a one-click method for triggering mobile apps. In 2017, he started to design the underlying domino.vote technology. Ray is a member of the Swiss Crypto Valley association, an e-resident of Estonia since 2015, and a borderless entrepreneur based in Switzerland.

CTO | Sergey Drobyshev

Sergey is a senior software developer with 12 years of experience, of which 5 in CTO roles and 5 with blockchain in Russia. Experienced with Bitcoin and Ethereum nodes and API (bitcoinjs, geth, web3.js, Metamask, Solidity, Remix, Truffle) and with ERC20 smart contracts.

CFO | Frederic Verin

Frederic is an entrepreneurial CFO with 10+ years of experience in business set-up/acquisition and expansion in multinational companies and in start-ups. Frederic’s expertise encompasses strategic planning and execution, business process re-engineering and risk management.

CCO | Ivan Hamilton

Ivan is Australian integrated in Europe and has held senior global marketing responsibilities with intercultural management and cross-industry experience. He led new market entry and start-up enterprises from the ground up and scaled the businesses to market leadership in highly competitive environments.

Business Development | Zurab Sanikidze

Zurab is a sustainability oriented entrepreneur with a diverse experience and skill set. He spent 8 years in Banking & Finance and 4 years in Marketing & Communication. His track record includes multinationals, associations, as well as Swiss startups.

External Legal Adviser | Olivier Depierre  

Olivier is an experienced lawyer in the Swiss financial legislation and regulatory sector as well as for advising entities and individuals as regards DLTs and cryptocurrencies. He has a large network and extensive knowledge of the blockchain space. Olivier is a regular speaker on all legal aspects about DLTs and was in 2016 one of the first lawyers to specialize in this field in Western Switzerland.

Business Model  

Although domino.vote’s ultimate goal is to conquer the decentralized online voting market as the leading provider of disintermediated voting solutions, for now organizations typically operate a centralized model for poll operation and costs. domino.vote aligns with this current reality by charging poll organizers through a comprehensive price list based on volumes of votes and ensuring voters have free access to the tools. However, domino.vote also aligns well with the trend towards decentralization.

6

Market Outlook

The initial focus of domino.vote is on statutory votes i.e entities and communities governed by private law and using polls to take key decisions, such as boards of directors or shareholder meetings. 

According to our studies, this market represents roughly 240 million and 15 million annual votes respectively in the US and in Switzerland. Rapidly developing efficient and convenient system like domino.vote will massively increase and create new demand.

SME shareholder assembly of 40 people costs $5K in direct costs in addition to over $20K economic costs. Swiss companies between 50 and 1’000 employees in 2016 would save CHF 180M using domino.vote.

Most Common Use Cases

Professionals

Includes Decision Makers, Staff Polls and Consultations. See below main voting methods description.

Decision-makers such as Executive Committees often vote by a show of hands as opposed to paper ballots or online. Staff polls are generally conducted using paper ballots, by the return of election cards, or via email. For consultations it depends on whether it is a Qualitative or Quantitative consultation. Although Qualitative data can be gathered in a written form, it is most often organised via one to one meetings or phone calls. Quantitative data can be gathered via email, online survey tools or paper.

Associations

Associations typically vote for statutory requirements enumerated in their Articles of Association. Votes are gathered at the Annual General Meeting (AGM), generally by a show of hands and by counting objections.

Shareholders

Votes are organised differently for SMEs versus large listed corporations. 

An SME AGM tends to use a room holding up to 50 people, allowing most shareholders to attend. The debates are open and interactive, leading to a transparent decision-making process, often by a show of hands. However, there are  flaws with respect to voter inclusion: a person may be absent and/or may require confidentiality to express her position. 

For large listed companies with potentially more than 100’000 shareholder voters, governance is multi-layered and hard to verify, with proxy votes for general shareholders, remote-control voting technology and for the most advanced companies the use of centralized online voting technologies.


Disadvantages of current voting practices:


7

Positioning

While an online voting market has developed, with some advanced pilots in Estonia and Switzerland and tests in other countries, traditional voting still dominates national elections because those e-voting solutions have struggled with security and trust. 

Similarly, cryptographic solutions have been studied since the 1990s but only adopted  from 2012, when online voting gained acceptance. Trust then became crucial in online voting, and cryptography was used to provide universal verifiability. 

We hold patents pending which describe key pieces of our unique and exclusive technology solution. We have decided not to target the highly regulated political segment and instead to focus on private and public sector organizations looking for inclusive governance and decision-making capabilities.

domino.vote gives all voters direct access from their mobile device and a comprehensive audit facility, without requiring specific technical knowledge.  domino.vote uses blockchain to make the entire voting process secure and transparent, from voter legitimization to results and evidence. domino.vote is a unique high-trust solution in online voting. 

domino.vote can secure votes on and across various blockchains, ensuring a flexible and scalable solution. Last but not least, our innovative token identification method positions us well in the growing Security Token Offerings market, and for Asset Tokenization in general. domino.vote streamlines token issuance by giving voting rights to holders of standard tokens, without specific infrastructure or costly voting smart contracts. There is no cost-effective code library available  which seamlessly integrates voting behavior into tokens. domino.vote is the first and unique solution giving voting rights to any standard token.

8

Strategic Partnership

domino.vote is proud to be the Swiss Crypto Valley official online voting supplier from 2020. Crypto Valley is an international association of leading Blockchain influencers, based in Zug, Switzerland.

9

Key Milestones

10

How to get involved

We are a dynamic and vibrant team of technical and business innovators delivering revolutionary tools that drive best practices in efficient and trusted decision-making. 

We welcome synergies with business, legal and/or technical experts through partnerships and consortium initiatives from any location in the world.

Contact & information

https://www.domino.vote/

e-mail: info@domino.vote

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